Songs of the Women Troubadours (Garland Library of Medieval Literature)
It was probably during his three-year tenure there that he introduced Occitan lyric poetry to the city, which was later to develop a flourishing Occitan literary culture. He was a patron as well as a composer of Occitan lyric.
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The trobairitz were the female troubadours, the first female composers of secular music in the Western tradition. The word trobairitz was first used in the 13th-century Romance of Flamenca and its derivation is the same as that of trobaire but in feminine form. There were also female counterparts to the joglars : the joglaresas. The number of trobairitz varies between sources: there were twenty or twenty-one named trobairitz, plus an additional poet known only as Domna H.
There are several anonymous texts ascribed to women; the total number of trobairitz texts varies from twenty-three Schultz-Gora , twenty-five Bec , thirty-six Bruckner, White, and Shepard , and forty-six Rieger. Only one melody composed by a trobairitz the Comtessa de Dia survives.
Out of a total of about troubadours and 2, troubadour works, the trobairitz and their corpus form a minor but interesting and informative portion. They are, therefore, quite well studied.
The trobairitz were in most respects as varied a lot as their male counterparts, with the general exceptions of their poetic style and their provenance. They wrote predominantly cansos and tensos ; only one sirventes by a named woman, Gormonda de Monpeslier , survives though two anonymous ones are attributed to women. One salut d'amor , by a woman Azalais d'Altier to a woman Clara d'Anduza is also extant and one anonymous planh is usually assigned a female authorship. They wrote almost entirely within the trobar leu style; only two poems, one by Lombarda and another Alais, Yselda, and Carenza , are usually considered to belong to the more demanding trobar clus.
None of the trobairitz were prolific, or if they were their work has not survived. Only two have left us more than one piece: the Comtessa de Dia, with four, and Castelloza , with three or four. The trobairitz came almost to a woman from Occitania.
Songs of the Women Troubadours (Garland Library of Medieval Literature)
All the trobairitz whose families we know were high-born ladies; only one, Lombarda, was probably of the merchant class. All the trobairitz known by name lived around the same time: the late 12th and the early 13th century c. The earliest was probably Tibors de Sarenom , who was active in the s the date of her known composition is uncertain.
The latest was either Garsenda of Forcalquier , who died in , though her period of poetic patronage and composition probably occurred a quarter century earlier, or Guilleuma de Rosers , who composed a tenso with Lanfranc Cigala , known between and Three main styles of Occitan lyric poetry have been identified: the trobar leu light , trobar ric rich , and trobar clus closed, hermetic. The first was by far the most common: the wording is straightforward and relatively simple compared to the ric and literary devices are less common than in the clus.
This style was the most accessible and it was immensely popular. The most famous poet of the trobar leu was Bernart de Ventadorn. The trobar clus regularly escapes modern scholarly interpretation. Words are commonly used metaphorically and symbolically and what a poem appears to be about on its surface is rarely what is intended by the poet or understood by audiences "in the know". The clus style was invented early by Marcabru but only favoured by a few masters thereafter. The trobar ric style is not as opaque as the clus , rather it employs a rich vocabulary, using many words, rare words, invented words, and unusual, colourful wordings.
Modern scholars recognise several "schools" in the troubadour tradition. Among the earliest is a school of followers of Marcabru, sometimes called the "Marcabrunian school": Bernart Marti , Bernart de Venzac , Gavaudan , and Peire d'Alvernhe. These poets favoured the trobar clus or ric or a hybrid of the two. They were often moralising in tone and critical of contemporary courtly society.
Another early school, whose style seems to have fallen out of favour, was the "Gascon school" of Cercamon , Peire de Valeira , and Guiraut de Calanso. Cercamon was said by his biographer to have composed in the "old style" la uzansa antiga and Guiraut's songs were d'aquella saison "of that time". This style of poetry seems to be attached to early troubadours from Gascony and was characterised by references to nature: leaves, flowers, birds, and their songs.
This Gascon "literary fad" was unpopular in Provence in the early 13th century, harming the reputation of the poets associated with it. All three were members of the urban middle class and no courtesans: Miralhas was possibly a potter and Bernart was a mayestre teacher. They have been described as "Gallicised". Troubadours, at least after their style became established, usually followed some set of "rules", like those of the Leys d'amors compiled between and Initially all troubadour verses were called simply vers , yet this soon came to be reserved for only love songs and was later replaced by canso , though the term lived on as an antique expression for the troubadours' early works and was even employed with a more technically meaning by the last generation of troubadours midth century , when it was thought to derive from the Latin word verus truth and was thus used to describe moralising or didactic pieces.
The early troubadours developed many genres and these only proliferated as rules of composition came to be put in writing. The known genres are:. All these genres were highly fluid. A cross between a sirventes and a canso was a meg-sirventes half- sirventes. The maldit and the comiat were often connected as a maldit-comiat and they could be used to attack and renounce a figure other than a lady or a lover, like a commanding officer when combined, in a way, with the sirventes.
Most "Crusading songs" are classified either as cansos or sirventes but sometimes separately. Some styles became popular in other languages and in other literary or musical traditions. In French , the alba became the aubade , the pastorela the pastourelle , and the partimen the jeu parti. The sestina became popular in Italian literature.
The troubadours were not averse to borrowing either. The planh developed out of the Latin planctus and the sonnet was stolen from the Sicilian School. The basse danse bassa dansa was first mentioned in the troubadour tradition c. Troubadours performed their own songs. Jongleurs performers and cantaires singers also performed troubadours' songs.
They could work from chansonniers , many of which have survived, or possibly from more rudimentary and temporary songbooks, none of which have survived, if they even existed. Some troubadours, like Arnaut de Maruelh , had their own jongleurs who were dedicated to singing their patron's work. Arnaut's joglar et cantaire , probably both a singer and a messenger, who carried his love songs to his lady, was Pistoleta.
The messenger was commonplace in troubadour poetry; many songs reference a messenger who will bring it to its intended ear. A troubadour often stayed with a noble patron of his own and entertained his court with his songs. Court songs could be used not only as entertainment but also as propaganda, praising the patron, mocking his enemies, encouraging his wars, teaching ethics and etiquette, and maintaining religious unity. The court was not the only venue for troubadour performance. Competitions were held from an early date. According to the vida of the Monge de Montaudon , he received a sparrow hawk , a prized hunting bird, for his poetry from the cour du Puy , some sort of poetry society associated with the court of Alfonso II of Aragon.
The most famous contests were held in the twilight of the troubadours in the 14th and 15th centuries. Troubadour songs were usually monophonic. Fewer than melodies out of an estimated survive. Some were set to pre-existing pieces of music. Beginning in the early 13th century, the spread of Occitan verse demanded grammars and dictionaries, especially for those whose native tongue was not Occitan, such as the Catalan and Italian troubadours, and their imitators.
The production of such works only increased with the academisation of the troubadour lyric in the 14th century. Some 2, poems or fragments of poems have survived from around identifiable troubadours. They are largely preserved in songbooks called chansonniers made for wealthy patrons. Troubadour songs are generally referred to by their incipits , that is, their opening lines. If this is long, or after it has already been mentioned, an abbreviation of the incipit may be used for convenience. A few troubadour songs are known by "nicknames", thus D'un sirventes far by Guilhem Figueira is commonly called the Sirventes contra Roma.
When a writer seeks to avoid using unglossed Occitan, the incipit of the song may be given in translation instead or a title may even be invented to reflect the theme of the work. There are examples, however, of troubadour songs given Occitan titles in the manuscripts, such as an anonymous pastorela that begins Mentre per una ribeira , which is entitled Porquieira.
The number of Occitan parchment chansonniers given as extant varies between authors, depending on how they treat fragmentary and multilingual manuscripts. Conventionally, fragments are classified as fragments of the surviving chansonnier they most closely resemble and not as chansonniers in their own right. The lettering siglas was introduced by Karl Bartsch , who placed sources he considered more reliable higher in the alphabet. This system is imperfect, however, since many of the chansonniers produced for an Italian audience are heavily edited and do not necessarily more closely resemble the original compositions.
While parchment chansonniers are more durable, paper ones also exist and have received lower-case siglas. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Composer and performer of lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages. For the opera, see Il trovatore. For other uses of "troubadour", see Troubadour disambiguation. Main article: Trobairitz. A chantar m'er. The only existing song by a trobairitz which survives with music.
Main article: Occitan literature. Abraham, Mary C. Akehurst, F. A Handbook of the Troubadours. Berkeley: University of California Press. Aubrey, Elizabeth Boase, Roger Manchester: Manchester University Press. Chaytor, Henry John The Troubadours. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Gaunt, Simon, and Kay, Sarah , edd. Jones, W. Powell Paden, William D. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. Los trovadores: historia literaria y textos. Barcelona: Planeta, Silverstein, Theodore Smythe, Barbara New York: Cooper Square Publishers.
Warren, F. The Poetry of Cercamon and Jaufre Rudel. London: Garland Publishing. Que sais-je? The origin and meaning of courtly love: a critical study of European scholarship. Manchester University Press. Peire d'Alvernha, Liriche. Provence and Pound. University of California. Romania : 14— The Women Troubadours. WW Norton. Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies. Bond, "Origins", in Akehurst and Davis, p. Bond, "Origins", in Akehurst and Davis, Bertran de Born uses the term miei sirventes.
Macmillan Press Ltd. The conclusion simply does not follow from the premises, but in arguments of this type that is almost irrelevant; the authoritative tone is intended to carry the day. What this fashionable prose produces is of course that most reactionary of accounts, a hierarchical Middle Ages in which not merely alternative modes of thought but thought per se is proscribed—an account that at one stroke wipes out not merely the complexity of medieval society but the centuries of struggle by which medieval men and women sought to remake their society.
The locus of song is everywhere in general and nowhere in particular, its place is no place. Grammar or the language of song transcends the concrete historical situation; in Heideggerian terms, it is an ontological rather than an ontic language; it expresses Being in general rather than a certain particular being. Readings like those of Zumthor or Stone cannot erase the existence of the poems, and cannot prevent readers from reading the poems, but they do attempt to dictate the terms on which readers can understand those poems.
But the work of the critic is never conceived as being subject to the same limitations— criticism does not refer only to itself, but claims authority over any and all other forms of discourse, including—and especially—the discourse of poetry. And like Plato, it seems that critics would deny poetry a place in their carefully-wrought Republic. There is evidence of a relationship between the lyric first person and the characters of other medieval genres, which suggests that medieval readers were prepared to take the first person as referring to an ontological entity a person.
The troubadours celebrate love and desire in a way that is true to immediate experience, true to the life that men and women of flesh actually inhabit, an attitude that may have been an unexpected side-effect of the first Crusades:. A new world had revealed itself to them: a civilization that was not Christian, that accorded a positive attitude to life on earth, that gave free expression to love and sensual pleasures rather than dwelling on sin, contrition, and penitence. The beauty they celebrate is here, in living and breathing never-to-be-replicated individuals.
Unlike so many of the Italian and English poets who will follow them, the troubadours point—with Aristotle—to the Earth beneath their feet. In these poems, you are invited to see, not through an allegory or the doctrines of a philosophical position, but through a pair of eyes; and what these eyes are gazing into is not a gateway to a soul, or a vision of the love that moves the sun and the other stars—they are gazing with rapture and delight into the eyes of another person just like you. One prominent argument suggests that it is indebted to Spanish-Arabic poetry of the eleventh century in terms of its themes and motifs:.
It introduces new fashions in composition, as in its hymns to Spring. We can see, if not direct influence, at least shared poetic genes, by looking at a Spanish Arabic poem contemporary to those of the troubadours. Is it more of an internal struggle, the spirit who took me and forced me to struggle with and confront my own yearning? Perhaps the spirit Arabi is wrestling with is the difficulty he experiences in discovering the meaning of his own yearnings, the desires that dogmatic religion would tell him to reject.
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We are not sinful because we desire; we are not broken because we want. This is an emphatically humane vision. In Farai chansoneta nueva I will write a new song , Guilhem asks what the use could possibly be in withdrawing from the world of life, love, and pleasure:. What can it bring you if I cloister myself And you do not keep me for your own?
All the joys of the world are ours Lady, if we love each other in turn. As the later poet Bernart de Ventadorn argues, love must be mutual in order for it to be true. Neither is Companho faray un vers… convinen I will make a poem as it should be , in which Guilhem compares two mistresses to horses he greatly enjoys riding: If I could tame them to my desire, I would not move my equipment anywhere else, For I would be mounted better than any man alive.
God give me a life long enough To get my hands beneath her dress. This is the expression of frankly physical desire. The first troubadour was not a man who regarded love as a path to the divine, or the woman right in front of him as a window through which he should learn to see God. For the passionate and sometimes violent Guilhem, love was a crucial part of a life here and now that is to be celebrated without apology and without genuflection to gods above or devils below. Love—in all its emotional and physical glories—needed no justification. Guilhem was a man many modern academics would not like, and the feeling would probably be mutual.
In Pus vezem de novel florir Since we see new blossoms , Guilhem complains:. So I know less than any what is good Because I want what I cannot get. I have seen all the works done beneath the sun; behold, all are vanity, a striving after the wind. He is dissatisfied with it and the small amount of Jois it affords.
Let the ideas they are so proud of bring them to bad ends. The mutual desire between lovers is both physical and emotional. It is not merely a repressed or sublimated eros ; it is the fully and powerfully physical expression of love and desire, combined with mutual choice and honesty. It is a love which does not live by rapina , by taking, forcing, pillaging, raping. For Marcabru, such people see the world as fragmented, frait , rather than whole, entier.
This search for wholeness and Jois was not a disguised religious quest. Most of them […] frankly said that they did. He is truly dead who has no sense of love or its sweet savor in his heart.
In pleasing and in wanting is the love of two noble lovers. Nothing in it can be good If the will is not mutual. When fresh grass and leaves appear And flowers bloom among the orchards, And the nightingales, high and clear, Lift their voices, pouring out their songs; Joy to them and joy to the flowers, And joy to me, and to my Lady even more, Joy is all around me; Joy enfolds my mind, But here my joy quite overwhelms the rest. We see it reflected later in Chaucer: the opening reference to springtime, the budding of growth, and the reawakening of nature.
The main theme is the repeated expression of the painful effect of the passion he feels, the desire that he has for a woman, the lady Aliu Anor, better known as Eleanor of Aquitaine. According to the vida the later biography of Bernart, ostensibly written by Uc de Saint Circ , the love was mutual:. Bernart de Ventadorn […] went to the duchess of Normandy, who was young and of great merit, and devoted herself to reputation and honor and praise. And the songs and verses of Sir Bernart pleased her very much, and she received him and welcomed him warmly.
He stayed in her court a long time, and fell in love with her and she with him, and he made many good songs about her. And while he was with her, King Henry of England took her as his wife and took her from Normandy and led her to England.
Works under MDS 849.1
Sir Bernart remained on this side [of the Channel], sad and grieving, and went to the good Count Raymond of Toulouse, and stayed with him until the count died. And because of that grief, Sir Bernart entered the order of Dalon, and there he died. He has developed an urgent passion for a woman of wealth, nobility, and power, a woman whose station far exceeds either his reach or his grasp.
And though the poems suggest that perhaps this passion was requited at some point, Bernart often appears to berate himself over the ridiculous inequality in terms of rank, wealth, influence, and power between himself and his beloved. By God, my Lady, we have little success in love! I so love and cherish my lady, That I am afraid and draw back; I do not speak of myself in her hearing, Nor do I ask for anything from her.
While many of the troubadours are knights and minor nobles, a number of them are referred to as Joglars from which we get our word juggler , mere performers, like Bernart, who have nothing else to fall back on. Such performers, because of their art, are invited into circles to which they would normally have no access.
And yet, desire cannot and will not be reasoned with:. How hard would you have to kiss someone for the effects to show after an hour, much less a month? The most famous story that illustrates the high stakes of the loves the troubadour poets celebrate comes from the vida of Guilhem de Cabestanh:. Guilhem de Cabestanh [loved] a lady who was called My Lady Sermonda, the wife of Sir Raimon del Castel de Roussillon, who was very rich and noble and wicked and cruel and proud.
And this was told to Raimon del Castel de Roussillon, and he, like a wrathful and jealous man, investigated the story and learned that it was true and had his wife guarded closely. And one day, Raimon del Castel de Roussillon found Guillem eating without much company and killed him and drew his heart from his body and had a squire carry it to his lodging and had it roasted and prepared with a pepper sauce and had it given to his wife to eat.
And when the lady had eaten it, the heart of Sir Guilhem de Cabestanh, Sir Raimon told her what it was. When she heard this, the lady lost sight and hearing. And when he heard what she said, he ran to his sword and tried to strike her on the head, and she went to the balcony and let herself fall, and she died. Oy Dieus! Bels dous amicx, fassam un ioc novel yns el iardi on chanton li auzel tro la gaita toque son caramelh, Oy Dieus!
La dompna es agradans e plazens per sa beutat la gardon mantas gens et a son cor en amar leyalmens, Oy Dieus! In an orchard under leaves of hawthorn the lady holds her lover beside her until the watchman cries out the coming of dawn, O God! O God! Please God, do not let the night end already nor let my lover part from my side nor let the watchman see the dawn, Fair sweet friend, let us kiss, you and I, down in the meadow where the songbirds sing, let us do all this in spite of that jealous man.
Fair sweet friend, let us play a new game in the garden where the songbirds sing until the watchman plays his pipe. For the gentle breeze which comes from there from my lover, beautiful, and courteous, and merry, of his breath I have drunk a sweet ray of sun. The lady is delightful and pleasing And many admire her for her beauty, and for her heart which is true in love.
Two lovers, who choose each other in the face of law, arranged marriages, social convention, church doctrine, and the very real possibility of getting caught and punished, wish the night could last just a few moments longer. Only in the darkness is their freedom possible, only at night can they feel the one they love next to them, hear the rise and fall of breath, and know themselves as one and at peace.
But with light comes the law, with light come the claims of ownership and property, church and state. The watchman cries out the coming of dawn so that the lovers can escape undetected, and hopefully, live to love again another night.
The evident frustration in these poems is fueled by the absurdity of being unable to love the one of your choice except under the cover of darkness and lies. This poem expresses an idea we can see as early as the Song of Songs: the right to decide for oneself, and the insistence that love is a personal choice, a potentially risky enterprise engaged with, and embarked upon, by two partners. Der tac mit kraft al durh diu venster dranc.
The morning light shone, and the Watchman sang, while a lady secretly lay in the arms of her lover. Because of this, she lost all her joy, and her moist though beaming eyes filled with tears. What will become of me? Now my beloved can no longer stay here with me, for your light chases my lover away. The day shone powerfully through the windows, and though they bolted many locks, they were of no use against sorrow. Inseparable, we remain truly connected to each other.
The sorrowful man would soon have departed, but their bright, smooth bodies came close again, although the day already shone. Any painter who wanted to represent their companionship as they lay beside each other, would be overwhelmed. Although their love caused them great care, they gave themselves entirely to each other. Diu frouwe begunde weinen. Unfortunately, we will both soon awake. When will you return to me again? Alas, you take my joy away with you!
Two hearts and only one body we have , but O God , the dawn! It comes too soon! Neither are the poems written by the two poets below, who each found love famously vexing. In Non chant per auzel ni per flor I do not sing for bird or flower , Raimbaut references the conventional vernal opening to Troubadour poetry by renouncing it.
He then writes directly and openly of his physical desire for his lover, and the joy he takes in her:. It shall be, Lady, a great honor if you will grant me the benefit under the covers Of having you in naked embrace; for you are worth more than a hundred; And though I do not boast: At this thought alone my heart joys more than were I the emperor.
I have been in great distress about a knight I once had, I want it known for all time how much I loved him but now, I feel betrayed because I did not tell him of my love and I am in great torment naked in my bed or fully dressed. Sweet lover, so charming and so good, when will I have you in my power to lie with you at night and give you all my passionate kisses? Know this for certain, I greatly desire to have you in my husband's place as soon as you will promise me to do everything I desire. These two poets do not sing for birds or flowers, and in this breaking away from the conventional opening of lyric poetry, these poets also break away from sexual, social, and even psychological convention.
These poets write of lovers who choose. The poets express the anxiety that they may not get the opportunity to act on their desires. For Raimbaut:. She made her husband believe That no man born of woman Could say he had touched her. Soon You will be able to prove the same thing of me! Their poems are filled with desire, frustration, joy, despair, and the tantalizing possibility of freedom, of choice, of life lived, not spent in mechanical compliance with the expectations of others. These are poems of rebellion, not obedience, of chaos, not conformity.
Perhaps this can best be illustrated by returning briefly to Bertran de Born, the warrior troubadour more famous for poems of war than for poems of love and desire. Love wants a knightly rider for a lover, good with arms and generous in service, noble in speech and a lavish giver one who knows what to say and what to do outside and inside his realm according to the ability he has been given. Let him be attractive, a good fit, elegant and pleasing, and the lady who lies with such a lover is cleansed of all her sins. Love is physical and vigorous—like war. For Bertran, the lover should be a great warrior.
Though the song is playful, it expresses serious determination about a serious dilemma. The singer is caught in an arranged, loveless, and passionless marriage to a much older man. She is stewing in her own actively hostile emotions, as she is repulsed by her husband:. Coindeta sui! Imagine a girl of fifteen married to a man who is fifty. Imagine that they have nothing in common unsurprisingly , that he is a tyrant, and that his body has decayed into undesirability, while his libido still tells him that he is a young man, so that he is a thoroughgoing combination of all things that would likely be considered disgusting and oppressive by a young girl.
All too often, marriages in the medieval and early modern eras were arrangements of contentment, at best. At worst, they were hellish traps of jealousy, disgust, lack of desire, and differences in age or temperament. In the world of the troubadours, divorce was no longer the practical possibility it had once been in the Roman world.
For most, the only way out of a failed marriage was through the death of the marriage partner. In such circumstances of lifelong passionless entrapment, one wonders how often death was willing and able to oblige. But the movement these poems participated in was destroyed, as the troubadour culture and the courts that supported it were crushed in the Albigensian crusade —29 CE.
Due in large part to pressures applied after the establishment of the Inquisition in , the emphasis changed in much of the poetry that followed:. The basic assumptions of the modern Western world have long rested on the foundational idea of individual choice that the troubadours fought for bravely, but unsuccessfully. We, through Shakespeare and the poets who followed him, now live, for better or worse, in the world of the troubadour ethos—a spirit which Shakespeare makes his own in his most powerful plays, and around which Milton centers his crucial scene of human choice in Paradise Lost.
By the seventeenth century in England, the troubadours have won a victory more complete than the Crusaders of thirteenth-century France could ever have imagined. Perhaps it should be even less surprising that so many contemporary scholars have worked so hard to insist that there was nothing particularly remarkable about this poetry. Ovid was banished for life, never to see his beloved Rome again.
And yet, despite a history of theological, governmental, and critical disdain and erasure, the poetry survives. Lancelot du Lac, I. Reddy relies on this term. In Eleanor of Aquitaine : Patron and Politician , ed. Kibler Austin: University of Texas Press, , De amore libri tres : Von der Liebe. The Art of Courtly Love. De amore libri tres : Von der Liebe , The name translates as Ovid the Peerless [or Excellent] Doctor. Le Chevalier de la Charrette , ed. Uitti Paris: Classiques Garnier, , ll. Lewis, 1. Krueger [Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ], Lewis, 15— Livre VII.
Rather than using his psychoanalytical categories to shed light on the poetry, Lacan is using the poetry to shed light on his categories. He is certainly not alone in approaching troubadour poetry or any other poetry in this way. In Medievalism and the Modernist Temper , ed.
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Howard Bloch and Stephen G. De Mundi Universitate , ed. In The Meaning of Courtly Love , ed. Emphasis added. In A Handbook of the Troubadours , ed. Akehurst and Judith M. Davis Berkeley: University of California Press, , His love was an ennobling discipline, not necessarily consummated, but based on sexual attraction.
Jennifer G. The Poems of the Troubadour Bertran de Born , ed. Paden, Tilde Sankovitch, and Patricia H. Stablein Berkeley: University of California Press, , , ll. Canto In La Divina Commedia. Inferno , ed. In The Women Troubadours , ed. I : Sappho and Alcaeus , ed. Paden Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, , This is a variation of the amicitia argument we have already seen applied to Alcuin. Alani de Insulis doctoris universalis opera omnia. In Patrologiae Cursus Completus , ed. Kritische Edition mit Kommentar. In Mittellateinisches Jahrbuch , 7 , — As Thomas Stehling argues, [t]he recurrent reference to classical literature in medieval homosexual poetry represents more than just an appeal to a shared education; it may also be interpreted as an attempt to place homosexual love in a respectable context.
Thomas Stehling. In Literary Versions of Homosexuality , ed. Hilarii Aurelianensis Versus et Ludi Epistolae. Mittellateinische Studien und Texte, ed. Creative Mythology New York: Viking, , Yes, this is an early question, but you can see that it is still a very modern question as well. This has created an extremely intriguing representation of God. We offend him by his own consent; he even forces us to transgressions for which he will blame us. He not only knows about it beforehand […], but he caused it!
Eine ungemein intrigante Vorstellung von Gott hatte man sich da gemacht. Pelagii Sancti et eruditi monachi Epistola ad Demetriadem , ed. Of Education London: , Sig. Wilhelm Dilthey. In Medievalism and the Modern Temper , ed. In The Troubadours : An Introduction , ed.
The Modern Language Review , 2 April , —